Fuel tanker tanks are generally filled with gasoline, often containing tetraethyl lead (leaded gasoline), cyclodecadiene, tricarbonyl fibrils, ethyl bromide, dibromoethylene, ethylene dichloride and other additives to prevent shock, explosion, oxidation After these additives are absorbed by the body, they may cause intoxication such as dizziness, insomnia, loss of appetite, neurasthenia, fatigue, and memory loss. Therefore, it is very important for tanker drivers to understand the hazards of gasoline and its prevention and control. The use of foam cleaning agents has the following list of references for driver's friends.
First, the physical and chemical properties of tanker gasoline is colorless or light yellow liquid, flammable, explosive, with a special taste, insoluble in water, soluble in benzene, fat, etc., freezing point -60 Â°C, boiling point range 40-200 Â°C , Spontaneous ignition point 415-530 Â°C, the explosive limit of the mixture of steam and air is 1.3% -6.0%.
Second, the toxic effects of gasoline tanker gasoline is an anesthetic poison, mainly in the central nervous system, causing neurological disorders, low concentrations caused by changes in the body's condition, high concentrations can cause respiratory paralysis of the human body. And gasoline has a special role in fat metabolism in the body, causing imbalance in lipid metabolism in the nerve cells, fluctuations in blood fat content and changes in cholesterol phospholipids. The high temperature of the labor environment accelerates the evaporation of gasoline and increases the toxicity. Gasoline and carbon monoxide enter the human body at the same time. The cases of poisoning death caused by direct inhalation of liquid gasoline cause pulmonary edema, exudative bronchitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. .
Third, the clinical performance of people exposed to gasoline vapor, when the air concentration of 38-49g/m3, 4-5 minutes will appear significant dizziness, headache and anesthesia and so on. 5-6 minutes may be life-threatening. Acute poisoning occurs in oil tanks and in poorly ventilated, high-gasoline workshops in summer, or when drivers inhale gasoline into the lungs or stomach, causing poisoning. If lead gasoline is exposed for a long time, lead can easily accumulate in the human body. At this time there will be headaches, dizziness, general weakness, memory loss, disturbed sleep, loss of appetite, nausea and other symptoms. Particularly severe cases can occur with mental disorders, coma, and edema.
1. Acute poisoning (1) Mild poisoning is manifested by mild anesthetic effects, irritation of the eye conjunctiva, tearing of the patient, runny nose, conjunctival hyperemia, cough, dizziness, severe headache, palpitations, limb weakness, blurred vision, nausea , vomiting, irritability, involuntary speech, unconscious laughter, drunkenness, gait instability, tremors in the limbs, etc.
(2) Severe poisoning is extremely rare and occurs most often in environments where the concentration of gasoline vaporizes is extremely high, resulting in sudden loss of consciousness and death due to respiratory reflexes. Some inhaled higher concentrations of gasoline vapors, coma, limb twitching, eye movement disorders or strabismus, nystagmus, mydriasis, slow response to light or disappear. Some patients showed flushing, weak heart sounds, fluctuations in blood pressure, acceleration or slowing of the pulse, rapid and shallow respiration, purple lips, first shivering, and decreased body temperature, followed by an increase in body temperature of 40Â°C. In addition, some patients showed panic, hallucinations, non-caused crying, nonsense, dancing, showing rickets like seizures. Many patients with acute poisoning can be restored in a short time, some patients with retrobulbar optic neuritis, mental and memory loss, multiple peripheral neuritis.
(3) Aspiration pneumonia. One of the reasons for gasoline inhalation pneumonia is that the driver inhales the gasoline into the lungs with a blocked mouthpipe; the second is that gasoline station workers fall into the oil sump, causing gasoline to be directly inhaled into the human respiratory tract, causing bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, and large leaf pneumonia. Even pulmonary edema and exudative pleurisy. Oral inhalation is more common in the lower lobe of the right lung.
2. Chronic poisoning (1) Neurasthenia: headache, dizziness, lack of energy, general malaise, and memory loss. Most sleep disorders include insomnia and dreams, loss of appetite, palpitations, and sore muscles in the extremities.
(2) multiple peripheral neuritis: patients with cold extremities, numbness, can not go a long way, sometimes playing soft legs, go upstairs, wet towels, etc., check the hands, feet were gloves, socks type shallow sensory disturbances.
(3) Gasoline snoring: The patient's thoughts are not concentrated, auditory hallucinations, pessimism, fears are irritability, laughter and mirthlessness, and rickets-like episodes. In severe cases, indifferent behavior, ridiculous laughter, language dullness, and symptoms similar to schizophrenia occur.
(4) In some patients, the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline can cause anemia and a decrease in the total number of white blood cells.
3. Skin damage Because petrol has a defatting effect on the skin, the skin of the petrol contactor is dry, cracked, keratinized, chronic eczema, and nail stained, thickened and sunken; some cause acute dermatitis and folliculitis, erythema, papules, Water sores and "burns" and other skin damage.
Fourth, treatment 1. Persons with acute poisoning should quickly move away from the scene, lie in fresh air, loosen the patient's belt and buttons, keep the airway open, and wash the skin and hair with soap and water. Eyes can be washed with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution, boric acid eye drops. Those who accidentally swallow petrol can pour milk or vegetable oil, and then induce vomiting, gastric lavage and catharsis.
2. Sudden cardiac arrest, viable cardiac resuscitation, the use of epinephrine, to avoid ventricular fibrillation; aspiration pneumonia, can be given corticosteroids and antibiotics to control infection; rickets-like symptoms were given sedative drugs.
3. Chronic poisoning: Chinese medicine can be used. Vitamins and chlordiazepoxide can also be given. Low-dose insulin hypoglycemia can also be used. People with similar schizophrenic symptoms can be treated as normal schizophrenia. Inflammation of the skin, blister can use 3% boric acid solution wet. Keratosis, chapped can be used 100% urea ointment, desiccant can use oyster sauce and so on.
Fifth, prevention methods Do not be paralyzed by the sufficient knowledge of the toxicity of oil. Work must strictly abide by the relevant operating procedures.
2. The national regulations stipulate that the maximum allowable concentration of gasoline vapor is 350mg/m3. Therefore, the space gasoline concentration in production, storage and use sites should be below this hygiene standard to ensure safe production.
3. Special attention should be paid to preventing spillage and leakage of gasoline and attention should be paid to ventilation in the workplace.
4. It is forbidden to suck oil with your mouth, especially leaded gasoline. It is forbidden to use leaded gasoline to fill lighters. It is forbidden to use leaded gasoline to wash automobile parts and clothing.
5. Contact with gasoline should wear overalls, wear protective gloves, wash hands and face with soap and water after work, and bathe in best conditions. Do not eat or smoke immediately after touching gasoline.
6. The staff of the oil depot should not arbitrarily enter the tank to clean the bottom oil. If you need to clean the tank, you should take natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation to reduce the concentration of oil vapor in the tank. Personnel entering the tank must wear work clothes, rubber shoes, and rubber gloves. If necessary, wear a filter-type gas mask and attach a safety belt and a signal cord. In addition, there should be special guards outside the tank, contact at any time, but also easy to rotate operations. The continuous working time per person should not exceed 15 minutes.
7. When you have found symptoms of gasoline poisoning such as dizziness, headache, and vomiting during work, you should immediately stop working and rest in a place where the air is fresh. Serious cases should be sent to the hospital as soon as possible.
8. For those who are exposed to gasoline, health checks should be conducted before they are employed. All patients suffering from nervous system disorders, endocrine disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hematological diseases, tuberculosis, liver diseases, etc. should not be engaged in such work. In regular health examinations, all patients diagnosed with the above mentioned diseases should be removed from contact with gasoline for treatment. And recuperation. Pregnant and lactating women should also be temporarily removed.
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